GLOSSARY

common forestry terms defined

 

  • Basal Area (BA) – the cross-sectional area of a tree, in square feet, at 4.5 feet above ground level (breast height). When the basal areas of all trees in a stand are added together, the result is expressed as square feet per acre, which is a measure of a stand’s density.
  • Basal Area Factor – The factor, which when multiplied by stem count at a variable radius sample point, gives the total basal area occupied by tree stems on a per acre basis
  • Biodiversity – The variety and abundance of life forms, processes, functions, and structures of plants, animals, and other living organisms
  • Board Foot (BdFt or BF) – A unit for measuring wood volume. It is a piece of wood one foot long, one foot wide, and one inch thick.
  • Canopy – The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the tops, or crowns, of adjacent trees
  • Certification - Forest certification is a system for identifying well-managed forestland. The two major certification systems for small landowner in Oregon are the American Tree Farm System and that sponsored by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).
  • Clearcut – A harvest method that removes essentially all trees in a stand
  • Conifer – A cone-bearing tree. They often are referred to as softwoods or evergreens, although the hardness of their wood varies, and not all are evergreen. Common conifers in the Pacific Northwest include Douglas-fir, western hemlock, grand fir, Pacific silver fir, noble fir, and western redcedar.
  • CONVERSION RETURN APPROACH - A DERIVATION OF THE INCOME APPROACH TO APPRAISING TIMBER IN WHICH MARKET VALUE IS CALCULATED AS NET REVENUE FROM HYPOTHETICAL LOGGING AT THE APPRAISAL DATE OR AS SOON THEREAFTER AS FEASIBLE.
  • Crop Tree – A tree identified to be grown to maturity for the final harvest cut, usually on the basis of its location with respect to other trees and to its timber quality
  • Cubic Foot (CuFt or CF) – A unit for measuring wood volume.  It is a piece of wood one foot long, one foot wide, and one foot thick.
  • Cunit – 100 cubic feet
  • Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) – Tree diameter outside bark at 4.5 feet above ground level
  • Diameter Diversity Index - An index based on the comparison of diameter distribution in a particular stand to that of a typical old growth stand. The formula gives the most weight to trees in the larger diameter classes. The index increases as diameter diversity increases and as the percentage of trees with large diameters increases.
  • DNR – Washington Department of Natural Resources
  • Extraordinary Assumption - An assumption, directly related to a specific assignment, as of the effective date of the assignment results, which, if found to be false, could alter the appraiser’s opinions or conclusions. Extraordinary assumptions presume as fact otherwise uncertain information about physical, legal, or economic characteristic of the subject property, or about conditions external to the property, such as market conditions or trends, or about the integrity of the data used in the analysis. (Definition frOM THE 2012-2013 EDITION OF THE UNIFORM STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL APPRAISAL PRACTICE)
  • Fixed Radius Plot Sampling – A sampling method used in a timber cruise in which the sample plot radius is fixed. All trees within the specified radius from plot center are measured.
  • FORESTS OF RECOGNIZED IMPORTANCE  (fOri) - THESE FORESTS represent globally, regionally, and nationally significant large landscape areas of exceptional ecological, social, cultural or biological values.  TheY are evaluated at the landscape level, rather than the stand level and are recognized for a combination of unique values, rather than a single attribute.  FORIs may include, but are not limited to, landscapes with exceptionally high concentrations of one or more of the following:
    • protected, rare, sensitive or representative forest ecosystems such as riparian areas and wetland biotopes
    • areas containing endemic species and critical habitats of multiple threatened or endangered plant and animal species, as identified under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) or other recognized listings
    • recognized large ‐ scale cultural or archeological sites including sites of human  habitation, burial grounds and in situ artifacts
    • AReas containing identified and protected water resources upon which large metropolitan populations are dependent
    • areas containing identified unique or geologic features including geysers, waterfalls, lava beds, caves or craters
  • Forest Stand or Type – A group of trees with distinct characteristics, such as species, age, or condition, which can be distinguished from adjacent groups
  • Form Factor (FF) – A measure of tree taper. It is the ratio of outside bark diameters at 16 and four feet above stump level.
  • gis (GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM) - A system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographical data
  • GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM) - Coordinates obtained from a satellite-based navigational device that allows users to determine their location on the surface of the EARTH
  • Gross Volume - Tree volume with no deductions made for defects
  • Hardwood – In the Pacific Northwest, usually a broad-leaved deciduous tree. However, hardwoods can be evergreen, and the hardness of their wood varies considerably.  Common hardwoods in the Pacific Northwest include red alder, bigleaf maple, black cottonwood, Oregon ash, and cherry.
  • Hypothetical Condition – A condition, directly related to a specific APPRAISAL assignment, which is contrary to what is known by the appraiser to exist on the effective date of the assignment results, but is used for the purpose of analysis (Definition from the 2012-2013 edition of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice)
  • Income Approach – A set of procedures through which an appraiser derives a value indication for an income-producing property by converting its anticipated benefits (cash flows and reversion) into property value.  The annual cash flows for the holding period and the reversion can be discounted at a specified yield rate.
  • Invasive Species – Non-native species whose introduction does, or is likely to, cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.  Himalayan blackberry, for example, is an invasive species. It is non-native and causes both economic and environmental harm.
  • Lidar - a remote sensing technology that measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light.  the technology often is used to make high-resolution maps.
  • Log Grade – A standard of log quality based on characteristics such as diameter, length, volume, percentage of defect, knot size, and tightness and straightness of grain. Log grades generally are defined by independent grading bureaus. They are used as a standard by most buyers and sellers in a defined geographic region.
  • Log Sort – A standard of log quality based on characteristics such as diameter, length, volume, percentage of defect, knot size, and tightness and straightness of grain. Log sorts are defined by each buyer, so that multiple sets of sorts may be used in a particular geographic region.
  • MARKET VALUE (definition from 2012-2013 edition of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice) - The most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of the sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby:
    • buyer and seller are typically motivated;
    • both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider to be in their best interest;
    • a reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market;
    • payment is made in terms of cash in United States dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and
    • the price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with THE SALE.
  • Merchantable Timber – Timber of sufficient size and quality that it can be harvested economically
  • MBF – 1,000 board feet
  • NET TIMBER REVENUE - THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DELIVERED LOG PRICES AND ALL COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH HARVEST
  • Net Volume - Tree volume with deductions made for defects
  • NRCS – U. S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service
  • ODF - OREGON DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY
  • Pre-Merchantable Timber - Timber that is not of sufficient size or quality to be harvested economically, but that is expected to become merchantable in the future
  • Relative Stand Density (REL DEN) - The proportion of the stand density normally expected in a stand of given characteristics under some standard condition. It is a function of tree size and number of trees per acre.
  • Release – Removal of undesirable vegetation, through cutting or herbicide application, to reduce
    Competition for light, nutrients, and water from desired crop (usually planted tree seedlings).
  • Reversion – A lump-sum benefit that an investor receives or expects to receive at the termination of an investment
  • rma (rIPARIAN MANAGEMENT AREA) - PROTECTIVE BUFFER AROUND FISH-BEARING STREAMS, DOMESTIC WATER SOURCES, AND CERTAIN OTHER WATERS, AS REQUIRED BY OREGON'S FOREST PRACTICES RULES.  WIDTH VARIES DEPENDING ON STREAM SIZE AND OTHER FACTORS.
  • RMZ (Riparian Management Zone) - Protective buffer around fish-bearing streams and their tributaries, AS required by Washington’s Forest Practices Rules. Width varies depending upon stream size, site class of the surrounding land, and other factors.
  • Sales Comparison Approach – A set of procedures in which a value indication is derived by comparing the property being appraised to similar properties that have sold recently, applying appropriate units of comparison, and making adjustments to the sales prices of the comparable properties based on the elements of comparison
  • ScalING Diameter – Log diameter, inside bark, at the small end
  • Seed Zone – A defined geographic area in which seeds from a particular zone can be moved to other localities within the same zone at the same elevation without any major loss of ADAPTATION
  • Site Class – An expression of forest site quality based on its potential for growing trees. Each site class is a grouping of site indexes. Western hemlock and Douglas-fir sites are broken into five site classes, with Class 1 being best for growth.  Site classes cover the following site index groups:
    • CLASS 1 - SITE INDEX 136 AND HIGHER
    • class 2 - site index 116-135
    • class 3 - site index 96-115
    • CLASS 4 - SITE INDEX 76-95
    • Class 5 - Site Index 75 and Lower
  • site Index (SI) – An expression of forest site quality based on its potential for growing trees. For Douglas-fir and western hemlock, it is defined as the projected average height of dominant and large codominant trees at a breast height (4.5 feet above ground level) age of 50 years.
  • Special Sites – Those areas offering unique historical, archaeological, cultural, geological, biological, or ecological value. Special Sites include historical, ARCHAEOLOGICAL, cultural, or ceremonial sites or features of importance to the forest owner; sites of importance to wildlife, such as rookeries, refuges, fish-spawning grounds, vernal ponds, and shelters for hibernating animals; unique ecological communities, such as relic old-growth trees, springs, glades, savannas, fens, and bogs; and geological features such as terminal
    moraines, cliffs, and caves.
  • STandard Error (S. E.) - A measure of the precision of the volume estimate. Based on sampling error alone, the probability that true volume is within one standard error of cruise volume is 68 percent. It is 95 percent that true volume is within two standard errors OF CRUISE VOLUME, and 99 percent that it is within three. Calculations typically are based on the assumption of a random sample.
  • Stand Density Index - An index that expresses relative stand density based on a comparison of measured stand values with some standard condition
  •  Stand Structure – The horizontal and vertical distribution of plants in the forest, including the height, diameter, crown layers, and stems of trees, shrubs, understory plants, snags, and down woody debris
  • Stocking (STK) – An indication of the number of trees in a stand in relation to the desirable number for best growth and management
  • Thinning – A cultural treatment designed to reduce stand density in order to improve growth, enhance forest health, or recover potential mortality
  • Timber Cruise – An inventory of a forest stand to determine the quantity of the forest products that can be derived from the stand, as well as other stand variables, such as tree quality, site quality, age, and species composition
  • True Firs – Trees of the genus Abies, such as Pacific silver fir, noble fir, and grand fir. The term generally is used to differentiate these species from Douglas-fir, which is from a different genus.
  • Variable Radius Plot Sampling – A sampling method used in a timber cruise in which the plot radius varies directly with the diameter of the individual trees that are being measured.  Every tree has its own plot.  In addition, the area of the plot is directly proportional to the basal area of the tree diameter that it represents, and the probability of a tree being selected for measurement is directly proportional to its basal area.
  • Whitewoods – Western hemlock, Pacific silver fir, grand fir, Sitka spruce, and other conifers with light colored wood
  • WMZ (Wetland Management Zone) - Protective buffer around non-forested wetlands, AS required by Washington’s Forest Practices Rules.  width varies depending upon wetland size and type.